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Франк Мейер. Природа Русского и Китайского Туркестана, нач. XX века, Ч.1/3

Вторая экспедиция Франка Мейера. Кашгария и Джунгария (1/3)

В 1909—1912 годах ботаник-путешественник Франк (Франс) Николас Мейер, служащий Министерства сельского хозяйства США, совершил экспедицию в Россию и Китай для сбора семян и черенков полезных растений. Получив в Петербурге необходимые разрешения, Мейер посещает Крым, Кавказ и Туркестанский край, а затем направляется в Китайский Туркестан и Джунгарию, достигает Русского Алтая, путешествует по Западной Сибири и Европейской России, заезжает в Козлов к Мичурину…

Перевал Терек-Даван, через который проходит путь из Ферганской области в Кашгар
[5665. Turkestan. The forbidding looking masses of the Tirek-Dawan or Poplar pass, which we had to cross en route from Osh to Kashgar. Russian Turkestan, October 13, 1910.]

К сожалению, в открытом сетевом доступе почти нет фотографий, сделанных Мейером в России; на сайте Министерства сельского хозяйства США (USDA) выложено лишь несколько снимков. Но и китайские фото весьма и весьма интересны!..

2. Ива
[5643. Salix sp. A species of a tall, shrubby willow, having reddish young twigs, while the older stems become quite white. Of value as a wind bread and hedge plant in cold wind-swept, and alkaline places. The bunch grasses in front are Lasio grostis splendens. Near Irkestan, Chinese Turkestan. Oct. 15, 1910.]

3. Жимолость
[5654. Lonicera Korolkowii? Shrubby honeysuckles, inhabiting remarkably dry, stony and windswept locations at altitudes of often over 9,000 ft. a. s. Fit to survive great cold and drouth, as this picture gives some idea of. Near Irkestan, Chinese Turkestan. October 15, 1910.]

4. Облепиха
[5657. Hippophae rhamnoides. Hippophae rhamnoides in full vigor and fruit, in a pebbly, arid waste, at an elevation of over 8,000 feet. The fruits on these wild bushes vary considerably in color and size, ranging from pale yellow to dark orange red; their taste is wicked, bitter, acrid and sour. Supply excellent hedging material for cold, semi-arid regions. Near Irkestan, Chinese Turkestan. October 15, 1910.]

5. Облепиха
[5658. Hippophae rhamnoides. View in a pebbly, high, valley, amid perfect arid surroundings, through which we passed, having crossed the frontier between Russian and China. Hippophae rhamnoides, shrubby willows, stunted bush honeysuckles and salt bushes (Salsola sp.?) were about the only vegetation. Near Irkestan, Chinese Turkestan. October 15, 1910.]

6. Селитрянка
[5656. Nitraria. A sandy, strongly alkaline plain, covered with desert currant bushes. Of value, possibly, as a sand binder in the elevated and cool arid and semi-arid regions of the United States. Near Ulukskat. Chinese Turkestan. October 15, 1910.]

7. Барбарис
[5655. Berberis sp. A very spiny barberry, of graceful growth, found on sandy and sterile level places at altitudes of between 7,000 and 8,000 feet. Of value as an ornamental garden and park shrub in the cooler and dryer sections of the United States. Seeds sent under No. 1447a. Near Kan-shugan, Chinese Turkestan. October 17, 1910.]

8. Караван экспедиции
[5664. Turkestan. Our caravan of eight horses en route from Osh to Kashgar, plodding through the dreary dessicated mountain vastness in which Central Asia abounds so plentifully. Near Kan-Shugan, Chinese Turkestan. October 17, 1910.]

9. Ирис
[5660. Iris ensata. An iris, occurring in such enormous masses on the alkaline planes at elevations of about 6,000 ft. a. s. that the plants became a feature in the landscape. Of value, possibly, as a ground cover or substitite for lawn grass in arid, alkaline sections of the U.S. Near Kan-shugan, Chinese Turkestan. October 18, 1910.]

10. Кашгар. Собрание сартов (уйгуров) и киргизов во дворе караван-сарая
[5670. Turkestan. A business meeting of Sarts and Kirghiz in the courtyard of our inn. The farther one moves away from the coasts washed by cold, salt water the more stupid man becomes. The natives of Central Asia certainly are the essense of ignorance and unprogressivenesss. Kashgar, Chinese Turkestan. October 22, 1910.]

11. Кашгар. Пекинская капуста
[5621. Chinese Turkestan, Kashgar. Brassica petsai. October 28, 1910.]

12. Туранга разнолистная
[5638. Populus diversifolia. A grove of desert-poplars, growing upon a piece of strongly alkaline and sandy land, where other trees remain stunted. The alkali-saturated wood is extensively used in the manufacture of buckets, dippers, barrels, out of one piece, etc. Deserves to be tested on alkaline lands in the S.W. U.S. Near Yengi-hissar, Chinese Turkestan. November 1, 1910.]

13. Ива
[5642. Salix sp. A willow of peculiar weeping habits; the drooping rendencies of the branches do not appear until the trees have good sized trunks. When pollarded, the trees assume much more regular shapes. An ornamental tree, fit for desert regions, when irrigated. Near Yengi-hissar, Chinese Turkestan. November 1, 1910.]

14. Мост в окрестностях Янги-Гиссара
[5669. Turkestan. Gorge where the water has eaten away through the loess and primative bridge crossing it, near Yengi-hissar. Near Yengi-Hissar, Chinese Turkestan. November 2, 1910.]

15. Тополь белый
[5629. Populus alba. The Central Asia form of white poplar, is planted throughout Russian, as well as Chinese Turkestan, and is one of the best quick-growing shade and timber trees for regions with long, hot and dry summers and medium cold winters. Roots must not lack a sufficient amount of water, otherwise the trees grow stunted. Near Yarkend, Chinese Turkestan. November 4, 1910.]

16. Тростник
[5661. Phragmites sp. A moving sand hill, in which a species of reed tries to get a foot-hold. Sometimes the reeds grow fast enough to arrest the movement of the sand, but most times they accomplish their task only partly. Near Kizil, Chinese Turkestan. November 4, 1910.]

17. Тополь белый
[5632. Populus alba. Old white poplars, in the vicinity of Yarkend. These poplars stand a large amount of alkali in the soil and deserve to be planted in the arid regions of the United States, under irrigation, to supply wood for match manufacturing purposes and for lumbering purposes in general. Near Yarkend, Chinese Turkestan. November 11, 1910.]

18. Гребенщик, или тамариск
[5652. Tamarix sp. A dreary landscape. Our carts passing through a section of the desert where many Tamarisks hills are found. Where the sand blows toward these hills, the plants thrive, but where the wind eats out the sand between them, they wither and dry up. Some of these hills unite and become mounts 20 and more meters in height. Near Guma, Chinese Turkestan. November 15, 1910.]

19. Лох узколистный
[5623. Elaeagnus angustifolia. A row of very old Oleasters planted along an irrigation canal, benefiting the corn fields in the vicinity by protecting them against the scorching desert winds; also preventing the irrigation canal from silting up by keeping its banks firm through their masses of roots. Near Guma, Chinese Turkestan. November 16, 1910.]

20. Лох узколистный
[5624. Elaeagnus angustifolia. A large specimen of an Oleaster tree, trunk nearly 10 ft. in circumference, 5 ft above the ground. Growing in a light, sandy soil where hundreds of sheep and goats passed daily, which beasts keenly relished the leaves and small fruits this tree cast off. Explorer shouting to the carters not to get off in a hurry. Near Guma, Chinese Turkestan. November 16, 1910.]

21. Тополь Болле, или тополь туркестанский
[5628. Populus alba Bolleana. Pyramidal white poplars, pollarded every 4-6 years to obtain straight poles for building purposes. Deserves very much indeed to be grown as a commercial lumber tree in the irrigated regions of the western United States. May also furnish an excellent wood for match-making purposes. Guma, Chinese Turkestan. November 16, 1910.]

22. Тополь белый
[5635. Populus alba. The white poplar, pollarded to supply building poles. The material obtained is not as straight nor as good in quality as that coming from P. alba Bolleana, but this tree stands pollarding much better than the afore-mentioned poplar, and lives longer too, unless cut off too often. Near Muchi, Chinese Turkestan. November 16, 1910.]

23. Эриантус
[5662. Erianthus ravennae. A very tall, rather ornamental grass, but a great pest in arable fields. Loves a rich sandy soil, with water near the surface. Near Taskhent the German settlers call it Steinkamish and have to [be] told hard and long to eradicate it. Herbarium material sent from Kulja. Near Muchi, Chinese Turkestan. November 17, 1910.]

24. Отдых на привале по пути из Яркенда в Хотан
[5666. Turkestan. Men and horses taking a few minutes rest in the desert near a halting place. En route from Yarkend to Khotan. Nov. 12 to Nov. 20, inclusive. Near Zawa-kurzan, Chinese Turkestan. November 19, 1910.]

25. Обед в караван-сарае, построенном Якуб-беком
[5667. Turkestan. Lunch at a big inn in the desert, built by Jacob Beg for political reasons. The tea made from well water was so bitter, however, that we couldn't drink it and we were glad to take a frozen watermelon, which filled the bill better. Al-Langer, Chinese Turkestan. November 19, 1910.]

26. Караван-сарай, построенный Якуб-беком
[5668. Turkestan. The ever moving sand is slowly burying the large inn, built by Jacob Beg. Nothing can be done against it in such a fearfully dry region as is this. Al-Langer, Chinese Turkestan. November 19, 1910.]

27. Тополь черный
[5637. Populus nigra. An old specimen partly imbedded in the dry mud wall of a native dwelling. This poplar is sparingly met with in the more elevated parts of Chinese Turkestan and grows to great ages, and acquires very spreading-out habits when left unmolested; a grand park tree for the dry cool sections of the United States. The wood is not highly priced, being of a quickly perishing nature. Khanaka, Chinese Turkestan. December 4, 1910.]

28. Тополь Болле, или тополь туркестанский
[5627. Populus alba Bolleana. A group of pyramidal white poplars, densely planted together on the grave of a Holy Man. These trees are over a century old and by their towering habits can be seen for miles around. A characteristic of this tree is that when young, its habits are extraordinarily straight. In middle age, its branches lean out and assume a vase-like shape, when old become of open-bowl construction. Khanaka, Chinese Turkestan. December 5, 1910.]

29. Ива
[5640. Salix sp. Picturesquely gnarled, old willow trees of great age. Resistant to alkaki, heat and drouth, fit to grow in the semi-arid sections of the United States. Khanaka, Chinese Turkestan. December 5, 1910.]

30. Ясень
[5647. Fraxinus sp. An ash tree, able to withstand great drouth, heat and alkali in the soil. A handsome shade tree for arid and semi-arid regions (under some irrigation, of course). Seeds of this very tree, under No. 1552a. Tree hung full of seeds even at date of photo. Khanaka, Chinese Turkestan. December 5, 1910.]

31. Лох узколистный
[5625. Elaeagnus angustifolia. An extraordinarily large Oleaster tree, probably more than a century old, growing on the edge of a corn field in a mellow, sandy soil. A right graceful ornamental tree this Oleaster is, with its silvery, olive-like leaves, livened up in autumn by thousands of fruits, mostly orange or orange-red color. Near Ism-sala, Chinese Turkestan. December 7, 1910.]

32. Тополь белый
[5630. Populus alba. A very large specimen of the white poplar, growing on the edge of a pond in the dessicating oasis of Khasan-dugra. Apparently between 3 & 4 centuries old. Trunk 30 ft. in circumfrence 5 ft. above the ground. Khasan-dugra, Chinese Turkestan. December 7, 1910.]

33. Тополь белый
[5631. Populus alba. A nearby view of the large poplar in the disappearing oasis of Khasan-dugra. See also photo No. 5630. (The tripod slipped on ice as I made the exposure - Meyer) Khasan-dugra, Chinese Turkestan. December 7, 1910.]

34. Тополь черный пирамидальный
[5636. Populus nigra fastigiata. An old specimen of the so-called Lombardy poplar, said to be 125 years old, standing at the edge of a pond, all frozen, as seen in this picture. N.B. It seems very likely that these so-called Lombardy poplars originated in Central Asia, for one finds them in such numbers and in such out of the way places and of such ages that it appears unlikely that they should have been brought in from south or western Europe. Bas-Lengar, Chinese Turkestan. December 7, 1910.]

35. Ива
[5641. Salix sp. The trunk of a very large willow, which has often been pollarded. This tree is probably between one and two centuries old. Apparently the same species as the ones on photo 5640. Khasan dugra, Chinese Turkestan. December 7, 1910.]

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